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The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in , Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital.
In the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire , determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.
The country became one of the Jesuit-supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger.
From onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.
The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate. The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte.
In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.
In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I ,  being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.
After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria.
Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.
Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.
When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had.
As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.
As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence. In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity.
This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states.
On 12 November , Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration , releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government , or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner ,  interpreted this as an abdication.
To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.
They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence.
Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany , mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder , but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it.
All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law. Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.
Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany. Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.
In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there.
Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.
Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions.
Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria.
Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk. Bezirke districts are the third communal layer in Bavaria; the others are the Landkreise and the Gemeinden or Städte.
The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.
In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.
The second communal layer exists out of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties. They share the same administrative responsibilities as the 25 independent cities Kreisfreie Städte , singular Kreisfreie Stadt.
The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde.
Together with the 25 independent cities kreisfreie Städte , which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations , there are a total of 2, municipalities in Bavaria.
In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.
Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung  . The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively.
However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years. The last state elections were held on 14 October in which the CSU lost its absolute majority in the state parliament in part due to the party's stances as part of the federal government, winning The Greens who had surged in the polls leading up to the election have replaced the social-democratic SPD as the second biggest force in the Landtag with The SPD lost over half of its previous share compared to with a mere 9.
Also entering the new parliament will be the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany AfD with Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage.
Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.
The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government.
The State Government is composed of the:. Political processes also take place in the 7 regions Regierungsbezirke or Bezirke in Bavaria, in the 71 administrative districts Landkreise and the 25 towns and cities forming their own districts kreisfreie Städte , and in the 2, local authorities Gemeinden.
In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie English: This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.
In the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany.
This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs— referenda took place from through Unlike most German states Länder , which simply designate themselves as "State of" Land [ The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".
The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State". The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.
Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.
Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to In July , Bavaria's parliament enacted a new revision of the "Gefährdergesetz", allowing the authorities to imprison a person for a three months term, renewable indefinitely, when he or she has not committed a crime but it is assumed that he or she might commit a crime "in the near future".
Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter. Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U.
Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th in the world. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq.
The state's population continues to decline . Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany.
Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.
Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.
As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.
Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum , or Maypole which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages , as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village , and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region.
There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions.
They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany.
They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.
Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i.
According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down in as incompatible with the European common market.
Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle.
The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.
Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken.
In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German , mainly in the cities.
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